Elections is a process which includes several governmental and non-governmental groups. There is no specific definition of election stakeholders, Considering the importance and position of governmental and non-governmental institutions in the constitution and electoral law can define them as election stakeholders. The relevant institutions and entities are involved in all election process. Or, in other words, voters, candidates, civil society organizations, international organizations, the media, women's groups, and government agencies involved in the electoral process which affected by the outcome of the election process, are election stakeholders. Election is a comprehensive and complex process in which the institutions and groups involved in the election process play a key and constructive role. Holding fair and free election is possible within the cooperation and collaboration of relevant institution. Election stakeholders have specific responsibility for the conducting of transparent elections, If one of these institutions fails to fulfil their responsibility, the electoral process will be fraught with problems. This article will briefly describe the relevant institutions and groups involved in the elections.
One – Voter
Voters, a major group involved in the election which have direct and fundamental role to play in the election. The voters participate in the election by registering for the polls and attending polls on Election Day, in order to select the competent people in administrations positions, to select political leaders of the country and their representatives in the legislature. Voter turnout on voting day depending on the situations such as political, economic, cultural and public satisfaction, the situations may vary from country to country. Usually in developed countries where citizens have better living conditions, citizens have more amenities the turnout is usually lower. In underdeveloped countries where citizens' lives are under economic pressure, insecurity, social intolerance and dissatisfaction with the status quo, voter turnout is relatively higher. Voters are seeking change in the political and social situation by participating in the elections and in the election of the desired political managers, responsible and sympathetic representatives.
The election organizing bodies are responsible for ensuring the fair and inclusive participation of all citizens in the elections. Provide timely information to the public during each election process, count and announce the results unbiasedly in the presence of media and election observers. Public facilities should be made available to the public on an equal footing. The election results should be widely accepted and democracy should be more mature.
Two - the candidates
Candidates are an important part of the electoral process. Candidate by announcing their candidacy in administrations positions, as a political leader of the country and representatives in the legislature and the candidates explain their plans to citizens during the campaign. In case of wining and to attract the support of the citizens they assure citizens of better practices. Candidates usually play an essential role in encouraging citizens to participate in election. Create gatherings, organize meetings and speeches to review the status, It highlights the shortcomings, design solutions to existing problems.
The role and responsibility of the candidate during the election campaign is political education of citizens, citizens will be aware of problems and anomalies by attending rallies. Strive to change and improve the situation through elections and the selection of wise and capable individuals in important posts. Citizens are taught to know their citizenship rights and responsibilities better and not to be indifferent to the officials' inaction. Election organizing bodies are also responsible for providing candidates with equal opportunities and facilities. Candidates will constantly monitor the electoral process, the shortcomings, problems, and developments of the electoral process share it with citizens, observe the electoral process throughout the election by the observers.
Three - Election Observation Bodies
Electoral observer civil society institutions are one of the most important influential part of election that is involved in the electoral process. Civil society oversees all the actions of those responsible for organizing the election, sharing any abuses with the people. Similarly, civil society monitors all electoral processes. Educate citizens about the elections and the electoral processes. They train election observers and keep them informed of all election campaigns. Electoral observer bodies are always working to play an important role in strengthening and consolidating democracy. Encouraging citizens to vote is also a principle. Minority and women's groups have always supported, encouraged, and encouraged the process of democracy and elections.
Civil society as election observers has an important and influential role in holding transparent and healthy elections. The impartiality of the staff of the election organizing bodies, the existence of the rules and the progress of the procedures based on the procedures of elections. The impartiality of the staff of election organizing bodies, the existence of laws and the promotion of work based on electoral procedures, plans and calendars, are emphasized for acceptable and all-inclusive elections. Civil society institutions are working to hold fair and impartial elections. In democratic systems, free and fair elections are an essential principle. Promoting a culture of fair participation in decision-making and administrative structures is possible only through elections. For civil society, consolidating democracy and institutionalizing a culture of tolerance are important goals.
Four - the government
The government, as an important part of the elections, is responsible for providing all the facilities necessary for the conduct of elections by considering the laws of the country. Utilizing government facilities to designate polling stations and locations, provide security measures for offices, registration centers, and polling stations and offer public awareness of the electoral process. The government also has the responsibility to coordinate with the election commissions to conduct the election. According to the Afghan constitution and the election law, the government has no right to interfere in electoral affairs; it can only carry out the responsibilities specified by law in cooperation with the electoral commissions.
In some countries, governments have sometimes interfered with electoral affairs. This has, of course, been the case in non-democratic systems and systems that use the election process as a tool. In democratic and democracy-based systems, transparent and healthy elections as the most important principle of democracy. In countries where the system of democracy is adopted, an independent body for holding and managing elections is created, which is responsible for holding elections. These institutions themselves have a kind of stability and guarantee the conduct of transparent and healthy elections. In Afghanistan, the Independent Election Commission (IEC) has been set up as an electoral body.
Five - the media
In Afghanistan, the media has a special place as the most important source of information. Since providing information to public is one of the main tasks of the media. The media always strives to cover all electoral processes in their own publications and to examine the different views of everyone. Today, the media are in fact considered the eyes and ears of citizens in all important processes, and especially in the electoral process. The media in most cases tries to reflect on the obstacles, the problems and the developments in a broad way. In some cases, the media is so influential on the electoral process that it can pose serious challenges to the electoral process. Media Law and Ethics states that media must impartially inform people about the hidden of social and political factors. As a matter of principle Elections are a matter of concern to citizens, the role of the media in the electoral process is constructive on public opinion.
The media plays a major role in mentalizing, creating awareness and educating citizens. They continue to reflect on how the electoral activities progress from phase to phase. Encouraging citizens to participate in the electoral process at various stages of voter registration, election day and creating a sense of responsibility in determining the political fate of society has been important. Awareness of the election campaigns of the candidates during the elections is crucial for the conscious selection of officials in important administrative, political and legislative positions.
Six - observers and Reviewers
In democracies monitoring the work of the Election Commission and the electoral process in an important principle, ensuring transparency and the soundness of elections. The presence of observers and reviewers plays an important role in the credibility and soundness of the election process. Observers and reviewers expect election commissions to have all observers, reviewers and the media monitor the electoral process. Monitoring the election process enhances the legitimacy, health and transparency of the election. The presence of observers, reviewers and the media in the electoral process greatly reduces the likelihood of fraud and violations.
In Afghanistan, election law provides a good opportunity for political parties, national and international observers to monitor all stages of the election process. Monitoring bodies oversee the transparency and health of the election, have the responsibility of consulting and providing expert guidance to the IEC. Election observation bodies are responsible for sharing their findings, consultations, and reviews with election commissions. More oversight of the campaign process is crucial in several ways. First, all parties and ethnicities have access to material means. Second, monitor the process of voting and counting for the sake of the healthy election. Third, monitoring the way in which the election results are used and implemented in the transfer of political power between parties and other political actors.
Seven - political parties
The role of political parties in elections is largely dependent on the electoral system in the country. The position of the electoral system and what it means for the parties. In any electoral system, the role of political parties in the electoral process is not unaffected. Political parties are the most important political actor in democratic systems. The political party is an example of the largest political organization that forms the basis of political activities, especially elections in the democratic system. Today, the political party is a well-organized group that exists within the political system to gain political power and to form a government through the use of legal mechanisms and elections. The political party as the most important political organization in contemporary democracies strives to gain power and expand its sphere of influence.
Therefore, political parties have a major role in the electoral process in terms of citizen participation, election awareness, introduction and support for candidates. Political parties, along with other election observation bodies, monitor all election processes, reducing electoral shortcomings and irregularities. Public oversight ensures the transparency and soundness of elections. In contemporary democracies, political parties share constructive and practical plans for better elections with election organizers. Political parties work with the electoral commissions as a key and effective part of the entire electoral process.
Eight - The international community
In a democracy, the level of legitimacy and soundness of an election depends on the approval of domestic and international observers and observers. In Afghanistan, in addition to internal monitoring bodies, international monitoring bodies monitor and finance election and provide technical support. International human rights groups, including the United Nations, have been more active in monitoring elections. International observer bodies are also training the way in which elections are monitored by political parties and groups involved in the elections. These institutions also play an important role in civic and political education. Today, UN monitoring is increasing the legitimacy of elections. There have been several consultative elections and financial and technical support from international organizations to the Afghan election process.
Along with the United Nations involved in the electoral process, the international community expects free, fair, all-inclusive elections to meet internationally accepted standards. Their expectation is that the election organizing bodies should provide the opportunity to observe and monitor all electoral processes for all election observers, media and political parties that received the credentials. Electoral institutions in the field of finance must establish a principle of accountability and transparency that is accountable to all parties involved in the election. Holding elections to global standards, helping citizens and groups involved in the elections help strengthen Afghanistan's nascent democracy.
Ninth - Women's groups
According to some statistics, women make up half of Afghanistan's population. Given the position of women in the constitution and laws of elections of the country, they have the same citizenship rights as men (and the right to vote to participate as a candidate) just like men. The role of women in the electoral process is of particular importance. The active and informed participation of women in the elections demonstrates the principle of the generality of the elections and also guarantees respect for women's citizenship and fundamental rights. The Afghan constitution provides equal opportunity for women and men to participate in elections and in the administration of the country, which is a unique and important step across the region and in the Islamic world.
The electoral process has made it possible for all eligible voters to vote and stand in the same legal order. The presence of women guarantees the legitimacy and universality of the elections. However, in an Afghan society where there is a strict culture of women's social activities. There are still many obstacles and challenges to women's participation and social activities. These barriers to the cultural structure of electoral institutions also pose many challenges. Electoral commissions, in coordination with women's institutions and civil society, also strive to provide a basis for women's participation in the electoral process. Women strive to be aware of basic rights and responsibilities of citizenship and to be prepared to compete for managerial levels. In some cases, Afghan law has given women more opportunities. Such as 25 percent of district councils and two Wolesi Jirga seats in each province.